Curb Diabetes in Your Household with this Information

Diabetes is a disorder that results from the body’s inability to regulate blood sugar or due to the reduced sensitivity of cells to insulin. If left untreated, it can lead in chronic and severe diseases such as kidney failure.

Diabetes affects approximately 29 million people in the United States while another 86 million have prediabetes. An estimated 8 million people in the United States have diabetes and do not even know it. Over time, diabetes can lead to blindness, kidney failure, and nerve damage. These types of damage are the result of damage to small vessels, referred to as a microvascular disease. Diabetes is also an important factor in accelerating the hardening and narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis), leading to strokes, coronary heart disease, and other large blood vessel diseases. This is referred to as a macrovascular disease.

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The most common type of diabetes is type 2; nevertheless, it would be a mistake to assume that type 1 and gestational diabetes lack severity. Currently, 8 million people are estimated to suffer from diabetes and are unaware. The following are some shared and other distinctive characteristics of diabetes.

  • Increased thirst
  • Increased hunger (especially after eating)
  • Dry mouth
  • Frequent urination
  • Unexplained weight loss (even though you are eating and feel hungry)
  • Fatigue (weak, tired feeling)
  • Blurred vision
  • Headaches
  • Loss of consciousness (rare)
  • Recurring Slow-healing sores or cuts
  • Itching of the skin (usually around the vaginal or groin area)
  • Frequent yeast infections
  • Recent weight gain
  • Velvety dark skin changes of the neck, armpit, and groin, called acanthosis nigricans
  • Numbness and tingling of the hands and feet
  • Decreased vision
  • Sexual dysfunction, such as erectile dysfunction in men

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Diabetes affects every part of the body dependent on the intake of sugars from the blood into the cells for energy production. Therefore, some of the primary symptoms are blurred vision, headaches, and sexual dysfunction. Insulin is produced in the pancreas to control the levels of glucose in the blood. If the sugar levels are above normal, then insulin is released to stimulate intake of sugar into cells and reduce its levels in plasma. If the blood sugar is below normal, then the pancreas ceases to produce insulin. Some individuals are at a greater risk of getting diabetes than others due to some factors such as genetics. Usually, a combination of things cause type 2 diabetes, including:

  • Genes

Scientists have found different bits of DNA that affect how your body makes insulin.

  • Extra weight

Being overweight or obese can cause insulin resistance, especially if you carry your extra pounds around the middle. Now type 2 diabetes affects kids and teens as well as adults, mainly because of childhood obesity.

  • Metabolic Syndrome

People with insulin resistance often have a group of conditions including high blood glucose, extra fat around the waist, high, and high cholesterol and triglycerides.

  • Too much glucose from your liver

When your blood sugar is low, your liver makes and sends out glucose. After you eat, your blood sugar goes up, and usually the liver will slow down and store its glucose for later. However, some people’s livers do not. They keep cranking out sugar.

  • Bad communication between cells

Sometimes cells send the wrong signals or do not pick up messages correctly. When these problems affect how your cells make and use insulin or glucose, a chain reaction can lead to diabetes.

  • Broken beta cells

If the cells that make the insulin send out the wrong amount of insulin at the wrong time, your blood sugar is thrown off. High blood glucose can damage these cells, too.

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In some cases, beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed by a virus, bacteria, or an autoimmune disease. Beta cells produce insulin; their destruction means little or no production of insulin for blood glucose control, which will lead to diabetes. Luckily, developments in diabetes research have led to the introduction of some of the best methods of control and treatment of various types of diabetes.

The primary goal of treating type 1 and type 2 diabetes is to control blood sugar (glucose) levels within the normal range, with minimal excursions to low or high levels.

1.Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is treated with:

  • insulin,
  • exercise, and a
  • diabetic diet

2.Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is treated:

  • First with weight reduction, a diabetic diet, and exercise
  • Oral medications are prescribed when these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugars of type 2 diabetes.
  • If oral medications become ineffective treatment with insulin is initiated.

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How to Treat the Common Types of Anemia

Presently, Anemia is a common blood disorder. The body needs oxygen t all time, therefore, without erythrocytes the body has a hard time, and the individual shows the following symptoms;
When you have anemia, your body lacks oxygen so that you may experience one or more of the following symptoms:

  • Weakness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness
  • Fast or irregular heartbeat
  • Pounding or “whooshing” in your ears
  • Headache
  • Cold hands or feet
  • Pale or yellow skin
  • Chest pain

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  • Fatigue and loss of energy
  • Unusually rapid heart beat, particularly with exercise
  • Shortness of breath and headache, particularly with exercise
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Dizziness
  • Pale skin
  • Leg cramps
  • Insomnia

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The common symptoms of anemia are insomnia, dizziness, cold feet, and pale skin. Each type of anemia is unique characteristics; therefore, it is best to treat each type of anemia uniquely.

  • Iron-deficiency anemia is almost always due to blood loss. If you have iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may order tests to determine if you are losing blood from your stomach or bowels. Other nutritional anemia, such as folate or B-12 deficiency, may result from poor diet or from an inability to absorb vitamins in the gastrointestinal tract. Treatment varies from changing your diet to taking dietary supplements.
  • If your anemia is due to a chronic disease, treatment of the underlying disease will often improve the anemia. Under some circumstances, such as chronic kidney disease, your doctor may prescribe medication such as erythropoietin injections to stimulate your bone marrow to produce more red blood cells.
  • Aplastic anemia occurs if your bone marrow stops producing red blood cells. Aplastic anemia may be due to primary bone marrow failure, myelodysplasia (a condition in which the bone marrow produces abnormal red blood cells that do not mature correctly), or occasionally as a side effect of some medications. If you appear to have a form of aplastic anemia, your doctor may refer you to a hematologist for a bone marrow biopsy to determine the cause of the anemia. Medications and blood transfusions may be used to treat aplastic anemia.
  • Hemolytic anemia occurs when red blood cells are destroyed in the bloodstream. This may be due to mechanical factors (a leaky heart valve or an aneurysm), infection, or an autoimmune disease. The cause can often be identified by special blood tests and by looking at the red blood cells under a microscope. The treatment will depend upon the cause and may include referral to a heart or vascular specialist, antibiotics, or drugs that suppress the immune system.

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  • Anemia caused by increased red blood cell destruction
    The treatment of hemolytic anemia may be tailored to the underlying cause. It is important to consider altering or stopping any medication or agent that is causing the condition. Adding folate supplements is often needed as levels drop. Some patients may require blood transfusion or iron replacement therapy, but it is a complex decision as to whether either is given.
  • Sickle cell anemia treatment. The drug hydroxycarbamide is sometimes recommended if a person has recurring sickle cell crisis episodes. It appears to stimulate the formation of an alternate form of hemoglobin that is not susceptible to the sickling. This medicine may help to limit the number of episodes and the severity.
  • For vitamin B12 and folate deficiency anemia, the treatment depends on the cause of the deficiency. If your body stores are depleted of vitamin B12, your doctor is most likely to prescribe vitamin B12 injections. If the vitamin B12 levels are borderline; low then your doctor may try oral tablets in a high dose first to see your response. There is a good chance that many of the symptoms associated with this type of deficiency will improve very quickly once the body is provided with the needed B12.
  • Lead poisoning anemia is treated by discontinuing exposure to lead and administering medicine that binds and draws lead out of the body. Where the household is suspected as the source of lead poisoning, calling the local environmental health department is essential. Old lead water piping used to be a problem in older houses.
  • With iron deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend iron supplements that contain the strong form of iron, which your body can absorb quickly. Always consult your doctor before taking iron supplements. Excess iron intake can be harmful. Symptoms of iron overload include fatigue, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, irritability and joint problems.

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In the case of iron deficiency anemia, it is best to treat it by supplementation with ferrous iron. Interestingly, anemia is preventable by good healthy eating.

While many types of anemia cannot be prevented, eating healthy foods can help you avoid both iron and vitamin deficiency anemia. Foods to include in your diet include those with high levels of iron (beef, dark green leafy vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts), vitamin B-12 (meat and dairy), and folic acid (citrus juices, dark green leafy vegetables, legumes, and fortified cereals). A daily multivitamin will also help prevent nutritional anemia; however, older adults should not take iron supplements for iron-deficiency anemia unless instructed by their physicians.

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